Josephine Baker: War Hero, Stage and Screen Star and Mother In honor of both Mother’s Day and the 76th Anniversary of The End of World War Two in Europe, here is the remarkable story of Josephine Baker, a war hero and mother to 12 (yes, twelve) adopted children… The Overview: American-born Josephine Baker became a famous Broadway singer and dancer in the U.S. in the 1920’s. She would eventually end up moving to France to become a movie star in 1925. In 1937, she opened her own night club the Chez Josephine, in Paris. After the fall of France to the Germans in 1940, Ms. Baker became a member of the French Resistance Movement. Her […]
Shays’ Rebellion, Impact That Led to Our Constitution Shays Rebellion was an uprising in Massachusetts that took place in 1787. It was in response to dire economic conditions after the Revolutionary War and Government indifference to the plight of rural Massachusettsans. Shays Rebellion highlighted deficiencies of the weak central government under the Articles of Confederation. As a result, many historians consider it a catalyst to the adoption of our current Constitution. Economic Hardship In 1780, Daniel Shays retired from service in the Revolutionary War after he became injured. The Fledging United States of America operated at that time under the Articles of Confederation. This first effort to organize a Government in the new World gave […]
How Manipulation Became Part of American Campaigns Saul Alinsky is an American author and community organizer often considered to be the father of modern community organizing. He is often noted for his 1971 book, Rules for Radicals, along with a having a penchant for Satan. Although, Alinsky is most often linked to recent political figures from the more liberal camps, who studied his works with great intensity, the use of Alinsky-type tactics can be found in numerous campaigns of both the social and activist type. Because the Alinsky method or methodology preys on emotions and a slow and steady manipulation of groups of people, it is important to be able to recognize these tactics […]
The Black Patriots of The American Revolution Who exactly are “The Black Patriots” of America? Get to know the crucial thousands, who played a critical role in the American Revolutionary War… By Definition… Whenever we celebrate our nation’s birthday, let us remember all the men and women who made this nation possible. Included in those remembered are at least 5,000 Black Men, who made a huge gamble and supported the Revolutionary Cause by fighting in the Continental Army. History records the name, Black Patriot, was used for all African Americans who sided with the colonists in opposing the British. The term, Black Patriot, refers to, but is not limited to, the 5,000 or more African […]
Assessing Polling in the United States of America…How Safe is Your Vote? The Constitution of the United States gives the states the power to handle polling (voting) in accordance with the Constitution. But, how does each state handle polling? And, how do Americans determine how safe their vote is and whether some claims about voting are true or not? The United States has some basic compliance laws for polling/voting. The federal government established an independent commission and programs to assist each state to assure safe polling. In addition, the United States tasks federal departments with providing cybersecurity and other assistance, guidance and monitoring to further safeguard voting in the United States. But…How does a […]
Why The 14th Amendment? After the Civil War, the United States needed to swiftly deal with several aspects of citizenship and the rights of citizens. Three amendments were ratified in July of 1868 and were collectively known as the “Reconstruction Amendments”. The 14th Amendment was intended to protect the rights of formerly enslaved people, but has continued to play a role in constitutional politics. In response to the Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln, the first step to free slaves, and The 13th Amendment, which freed slaves, some Southern states enacted laws known as “Black Codes”. These “Black Codes” targeted recently freed slaves and restricted their ability to travel widely, own certain types of property and-or […]
Declaration of Independence: A Transcription Editor’s Note: This is a transcription of the Engraving of the parchment of The Declaration of Independence, a document on display in the National Archives Museum Rotunda. The spelling, punctuations and wording is exact to the original document. The signers of this Declaration are included at the bottom, along with the state they represented. In Congress, July 4, 1776 The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the […]
Richard Henry Lee and America’s Steps to Independence Richard Henry Lee was a prominent statesman from Virginia. Though not a firebrand, like Patrick Henry, or quite as prolific as Thomas Paine, Lee became known as a powerful orator and writer. His words, spoken and in print, were important cogs in the wheels that churned toward America’s independence from England. Lee was born in Virginia and following home tutoring and then schooling in England, he returned to America and served as a Justice of the Peace for Westmoreland County. In 1758, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was later a delegate to Continental Congress. The Steps Toward Independence Following the Seven Years […]
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– Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution, 1833
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– Nathan Hale, remark to Captain William Hull, who had attempted to dissuade him from volunteering for a spy mission for General Washington, September, 1776
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Defining Populism Defining Populism is challenging, because it is a shallow political theory with a number of variations. Populism doesn’t belong to any one political party. And, Populism isn’t necessarily bad. With Populism, it depends on how far it goes, how it is used, and if the public is generally aware of its use. Because Populism has no specific stances or policies, it is more of a movement that involves inspiring people, because of a leader who inspires supporters. The First Use of the Word, Populist, in the U. S. The word, populist, first appeared in 1890 when a party by that name, The Populist Party, organized to represent the interests of farmers against…
Alice Augusta Ball: The Woman Who Cured Leprosy So few know the name, Alice Augusta Ball or her accomplishments, because initially another man took credit for her work. But Alice Augusta Ball is a black woman and is now known for significantly contributing to medical discoveries and firsts for women. This is her story… Leprosy or Hansen’s Disease One of the most virulent plagues known to mankind is Leprosy, also called Hansen’s Disease. Because the disease was highly contagious, painful and disfiguring, and known to cause certain death, patients with Leprosy were immediately forced into quarantine far from others. Patients experienced slow, miserable deaths due to this disease with little to comfort them….
The Articles of Confederation, Part 2 The Articles of Confederation formed the first government of America, but it did not last long. The idea of a weak central government and strong state governments appealed to colonists who had come to fear any type of strong central government. Their prior experiences with England warranted this. A confederacy appealed to the colonists, because of that fear. In Shannon D. Hanson’s first article about the Articles of Confederation, he explained the basics about that document. His follow-up article explains the difficulties that came with having a central government that was too weak. Links to Hanson’s first article about the Articles of Confederation and also the full text of…